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The district is immensely rich in mineral resources. The beach sands of the district have concentrations of heavy minerals like Ilmenite, Rutile, Monosite and Zircon which offer scope of exploitation for industrial purpose.

Besides large deposits of China clay in Kundara, Mulavana and Chathannoor, there are also lime shell deposits in Ashtamudi lake, Bauxite deposits in Adichanallur and disseminated graphite in Punalur.


With two rivers, the district is endowed with perennial supply of water. In order to augment the irrigation potential, several plans were evolved during 1953 to undertake river basin schemes. Kallada Irrigation Project, the biggest multipurpose project, undertaken by the State Government, is intended to utilise the water of Kallada river, mainly for irrigation purpose in Kollam, Pathanamthitta and Alappuzha districts. There is also a proposal to generate 50 M.W. of electricity from the dam at Thenmala.

The Kallada project comprises of a masonary dam of 335 m. in length with a maximum height of 81 m. at Parappur in Thenmala across the river to form a reservoir, a pick up weir and sluices at Ottakkal. The 69 kms. right bank canal and the 57.75 kms. left bank canal take off from the pickup weir. It is estimated that the two canals together will serve an area of 68,000 hectares. The projects are aided by the World Bank.

Improvement of Perumkulam yelah in Kollam taluk, West Kallada Scheme in Kunnathur Taluk, reclamation of Polachiral lake in Kollam Taluk and Ithikkara yelah schemes, are the medium irrigation schemes in the district.

While major and medium irrigation schemes are being taken up by the State Government directly, individual minor irrigation schemes, viz., dug-wells, bore-wells, tube- wells, pump sets, drip and sprinkler irrigation systems are being financed by commercial co-operative banks.


Kollam district ranks first in livestock wealth in the State. Dairy farming is fairly well developed. There are 3.12 lakh milch cattle (1987-88 livestock census). A network of one district veterinary centre, 2 polyclinics, 48 veterinary dispensaries, 14 veterinary hospitals; and 167 artificial insemination centres, cater to the needs of the district. The number of cows increases annually by five per cent. There are about 65 milk producers co-op. societies and three chilling plants. The chilling plants are located at Kollam, Kottarakkara and Yeroor. The milk producers co-op. societies handle about 3.34 lakh litres per day. The Kerala Livestock and Dairy Development Board has a master plan to increase dairying. In poultry, the district stands third and there is great scope for developing broiler and layer poultry farms. The district is covered by the Integrated Dairy Development Project. 'Mini-Dairy' Special Project is under implementation, sponsored jointly by MILMA and NABARD.


Kollam is an important maritime district of the state with a coast line of 37.3 kms. Fishing has a prominent place in the economy of the district. Neendakara and Sakthikulangara villages thrive in fishing. An estimated number of 23,000 persons are engaged in fishing and allied activities. Cheriazheekkal, Alappad, Pandarathuruthu, Puthenthura, Neendakara, Thangasseri, Eravipuram and Paravoor are eight among the 26 important fishing villages. There are 24 inland fishing villages also. Considering the unique location and infrastructure available, the Government has initiated steps for establishing a fishing harbour at Neendakara which is expected to augment fish production by 15%. Average fish landing is estimated to be 85,275 tonnes per year. One third of the state's fish catch is form Kollam.

There are 93 producer co-operatives, two credit cooperatives and one marketing cooperative in the fisheries sector. There are 38 Fishermen Development Welfare Cooperative Societies in the district. Nearly 3000 mechanised boats are operating from the fishing harbour. FFDA and BFFDA are promoting fresh water fish culture and prawn farming respectively. A model fishing village with 100 houses is coming up at Eravipuram. A model prawn farm is coming up at Ayiramthengu and a few new hatcheries are also coming up to cater to the needs of the aqua culturists. About 60% of the production of prawn in the state is from this district.


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